Anatomical deformation of the penis

Anatomical deformation of the penis can be congenital or acquired. Asymmetry of cavernous bodies and abnormally short urethra can be the basis of congenital deformities.

Acquired deformities of the penis can be the result of trauma or inflammation of tunica albuginea of corpora cavernosa. Regardless of the reasons, the anatomical deformation of the penis can prevent sexual intercourse and normal sperm secretion.

Peyronie’s disease (or plastic induration of the penis) is one of the leading places among various forms of the penis deformation. This disease is characterized by formation of dense plaques in tunica albuginea of corpora cavernosa.

The formation of plaques leads to appearance of painful erection, curvature of the penis and sexual dissatisfaction. Despite numerous studies, etiology and pathogenesis of Peyronie’s disease are not yet fully understood.

It is assumed that microtrauma of the penis is etiological factor of the disease. Due to ruptures of thin blood vessels and microcirculation in the tunica albuginea, the inflammatory process ends by appearance of calcified plaques and coarse scarring.

Today, treatment of Peyronie’s disease can be divided into conservative (applied to I, II, III stages of the disease) and operative (IV stage of Peyronie’s disease).

Conservative treatment of anatomical deformation of the penis caused by Peyronie’s disease includes use of:

Non-invasive methods of treatment (extracorporeal shock wave therapy).
Local administration of drugs (collagenases, steroid hormones, Verapamil).
Oral drugs (Vitamin E, L-carnitine, Para-aminobenzoate, Colchicine, Tamoxifen).

Operative treatment of Peyronie’s disease should be conducted in the presence of severe deformities, when the plaque is already “stabilized” and there is no inflammatory process.

The main goal of surgical method of treating this disease is to straighten the penis with maintaining its sufficient rigidity during erection.

Cavernous fibrosis, a disease characterized by proliferation of connective tissues of cavernous bodies contributes to development of anatomical deformation of the penis.Forming hardened tissue (fibrosis) in the penis leads to a decrease in the volume of cavernous bodies, in their elasticity and prevents filling with blood. This in turn leads to worsening of erection and development of erectile dysfunction.

Penile trauma, diabetes, priapism (prolonged pathological erection) can lead to development of cavernous fibrosis. In addition, cavernous fibrosis can develop against the background of Peyronie’s disease and inflammatory processes in the cavernous bodies of the penis.

Depending on size and location of connective tissue, the following types of cavernous fibrosis are distinguished:

  • Apical (lesion of upper part of the penis);
  • Medial (pronounced thickening of middle part of the penis);
  • Combined (includes two zones of defeat simultaneously);
  • Total (cavernous bodies are completely affected).

Unfortunately, there are no methods of conservative treatment of cavernous fibrosis now. The only way of treatment is surgery.

Another type of anatomical deformation of the penis is angulation (curvature). Pathological curvature of the penis occurs quite often among men. It can be congenital (consequences of violation of intrauterine development of the embryo) or acquired.

Causes of angulation can be changes in any of the anatomical structures of the penis, for example, oleogranuloma. This disease is a pathological condition arising in response to introduction of foreign substances and objects under the skin of the penis.

Erectile deformation occurs only in the state of erection and manifests as a violation of elasticity or disproportion of erectile tissue.

Insignificant curvatures of the penis are often amenable to conservative treatment. Use of the Jes-Extender system and its analogs, application of special techniques and exercises help to straighten the penis and slightly increase its length.

Depending on causes and severity of anatomical deformation of the penis, physicians use various methods of surgical correction today. To date, surgical method of treating angulation is the most effective.